Translate

Thursday, April 20, 2017

Names For The Days Of Week In Ten Traditional Nigerian Languages (Part II)

Edited by Azizi Powell

This is Part II of a two part pancocojams series on the names for the days of the week in ten traditional Nigerian languages.

Part II provides information about and lists of the days for the week in Igbo, Ijaw, Kanuri, Urhobo, and Yoruba languages.

Click https://pancocojams.blogspot.com/2017/04/names-of-week-in-ten-traditional.html for Part I of this series. Part I provides information about and lists of the days of the week in Edo, Efik, Fulfulde (Fula), Hausa, and Ibibio languages.

For information and comparison's sake, the Arabic names for the days of the week are also given in Part I since Arabic greatly influenced the names of the days of the week in Fulfulde, Kanuri, Hausa, as well as Swahili and certain other traditional African languages.

This post features only a very small sample of the languages spoken in Nigeria as there are over 521 languages that have been spoken in that nation (nine of them are now extinct.) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Languages_of_Nigeria

Note that some of the languages featured in this series are spoken in other West African nations.

This pancocojams series is part of an ongoing series that provides information about and lists of day names in various African languages. Click the "African languages days of the week" tag to find other posts in this ongoing series.

The content of this post is presented for linguistic, cultural, and educational purposes.

All copyrights remain with their owners.

Thanks to all those who are quoted in this post.

****
NAMES FOR DAYS OF THE WEEK IN FIVE TRADITIONAL NIGERIAN LANGUAGES
(This list is given in alphabetical order.)

IGBO
Excerpt #1:
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Igbo_language
"Igbo is the principal native language of the Igbo people, an ethnic group of southeastern Nigeria. There are approximately 24 million speakers, who live mostly in Nigeria and are primarily of Igbo descent. Igbo is written in the Latin script, which was introduced by British colonialists. There are over 20 Igbo dialects. There is apparently a degree of dialect levelling occurring. A standard literary language was developed in 1972 based on the Owerri (Isuama) and Umuahia (such as Ohuhu) dialects, though it omits the nasalization and aspiration of those varieties. There are related Igboid languages such as Ika, Ikwerre and Ogba that are sometimes considered dialects of Igbo,[6] the most divergent being Ekpeye. Igbo is also a recognised minority language of Equatorial Guinea."

**
Excerpt #2:
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Igbo_calendar
"The Igbo calendar (Igbo: Ògụ́àfọ̀ Ị̀gbò is the traditional calendar system of the Igbo people which has 13 months in a year (afo), 7 weeks in a month (onwa), and 4 days in a week (izu) plus an extra day at the end of the year, in the last month. …

Many parts of this calendar are named for or dedicated to certain spirits (Igbo: Mmuo) and deities (Igbo: Alusi) in Igbo mythology. Some of the spirits and deities were believed to have given the Igbo people knowledge of time. The days, also known as market day, also correspond to the four cardinal points, north, south, east, west.

Market Days
Igbos generally have four market days, namely: eke, orie, afor and nkwo. The market days according to the Igbo calendar follow each other sequentially as shown below:
Eke
Orie
Afor
Nkwo

[...]

The names of the days have their roots in the mythology of the Kingdom of Nri. Eri, the sky-descended founder of the Nri kingdom, had gone on to break the mystery of time and on his journey he had saluted and counted the four days by the names of the spirits that governed them, hence the names of the spirits eke, orie, afọ and nkwọ became those of the days of the week. The days also correspond to the four cardinal points, Afọ corresponds to north, Nkwọ to south, Eke to east, and Orie to west.[5] These spirits, who were fishmongers, were sent down by Chukwu (Great God) in order to establish markets throughout Igboland which they did by selling fish.[4]

While there are four days, they come in alternate cycles of "major" and "minor", giving a longer eight day cycle.[6]"

****
Excerpt #3
From http://www.nairaland.com/1115190/days-week-nigerian-languages-meanings Re: The Days Of The Week In Nigerian Languages And Their Meanings.
[comment] by chijiblaze(m): On Sep 16, 2016
"There are eight (8 ) days in the Igbo week.
Ya bụ Ụbọchị asatọ bọrọ n'eluigwe

Eke Ukwu - Greater Eke
Orie (or oye or orye)
Afor
Nkwo
Eke Nta (or Lesser Eke)
Orie
Afor
Nkwo"

**
Excerpt #4:
From http://www.nairaland.com/1115190/days-week-nigerian-languages-meanings Re: The Days Of The Week In Nigerian Languages And Their Meanings
[comment by chijiblaze(m): On Jan 13 [2017]
"Ụbọchị Ụkà / Mbọsị Ụkà = Sunday
Osote Ụbọchị Ụkà / Osota Mbọsị Ụkà = Monday
....Tuesday....?
Ụbọchị Etiti Izu-Ụkà / Mbọsị Etiti / Etiti Izu = Wednesday.
Osote Ụbọchị Etiti / Osota Mbọsị Etiti = Thursday
.....Friday.......?
Ụbọchị Nzùrike / Mbọsị Ezùmike = Saturday.

****
IJAW
Excerpt #1:
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ijaw_people
"Ijaw people (also known by the subgroups "Ijo" or "Izon") are a collection of peoples indigenous mostly to the regions of the Bayelsa, Edo, Delta, Ondo, Akwa Ibom and Rivers States within the Niger Delta in Nigeria. Many are found as migrant fishermen in camps as far west as Sierra Leone and as far east as Gabon along the Western Africa coastline and the Dakolo Family that migrated from Ghana notable from the family is Timi Dakolo.

The Ijo population is estimated to be over 15 million people....

Language

The Ijaw speak nine closely related Niger–Congo languages, all of which belong to the Ijoid branch of the Niger–Congo tree. The primary division between the Ijo languages is that between Eastern Ijo and Western Ijo, the most important of the former group of languages being Izon, which is spoken by about ten million people."...

**
Excerpt #2:
From http://www.nairaland.com/1115190/days-week-nigerian-languages-meanings Re: The Days Of The Week In Nigerian Languages And Their Meanings.
[comment] by AjiereTuwo: On Sep 24, 2016
"Days of the week in Ibani egere(ijaw)
Oru ene - Sunday
Oru ene obuu - Monday
Kala feni ibiene - Tuesday
Ogunu feni ibiene - Wednesday
Feni obuu ene - Thursday
Feni ibiene - Friday
Kala oru ene - Saturday"

****
KANURI
Excerpt #1:
From http://www.languagesgulper.com/eng/Kanuri.html
"Name Origin: Kanuri means 'person'.
Classification. Nilo-Saharan, Saharan. Other members of the Saharan branch are Tedaga, Dazaga and Zaghawa.

Overview. Kanuri is one of the three major languages of northern Nigeria (the other two are Hausa and Fula) and is also spoken in Chad and Niger. It is associated with the Karen-Bornu trading empire that ruled around Lake Chad from the 9th to 19th centuries. Kanuri served as a lingua franca of northern Nigeria but its role was reduced in favor of Hausa during colonial times. It is a tonal language with an agglutinating morphology and verb-final sentences.

Distribution. Kanuri is spoken west, north and east of Lake Chad: in northeastern Nigeria (state of Borno), eastern Niger, western Chad (states of Kanem, Lake and Chari-Baguirmi) and northern Cameroon. A substantial number of Kanuri expatriates live in Sudan....

Status. Kanuri is one of the national languages of Nigeria and Niger. A standard Kanuri orthography was formulated in Nigeria where the language is taught in schools and at the University of Maiduguri (capital of the state of Borno), being used in the media as well."

**
Excerpt #2:
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kanuri_people
"The Kanuri people (Kanouri, Kanowri, also Yerwa and several subgroup names) are an African ethnic group living largely in the lands of the former Kanem and Bornu Empires in Niger, Nigeria and Cameroon. Those generally termed Kanuri include several subgroups and dialect groups, some of whom feel themselves distinct from the Kanuri. Most trace their origins to ruling lineages of the medieval Kanem-Bornu Empire, its client states or provinces. In contrast to neighboring Toubou or Zaghawa pastoralists, Kanuri groups have traditionally been sedentary, engaging in farming, fishing the Chad Basin, and engaged in trade and salt processing.[5]"...

**
Excerpt #3:
From http://www.masteranylanguage.com/c/r/en/Kanuri/DaysOfWeek/2 Kanuri Language (Kanuri) Days of the Week Level 2
"Litinin
Monday

tàláwù
Tuesday

láráwà
Wednesday

làmísù
Thursday

jəmmà
Friday

səbdù
Saturday

lâdù
Sunday

****
URBOBO
Excerpt #1:
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urhobo_people
"The Urhobos are people of southern Nigeria, near the northwestern Niger delta. The Urhobo is the major ethnic group in Delta State. Delta State is one of the 36 states of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. The Urhobos speak the Urhobo language. The Urhobo culture is related to several cultures in the Niger-Delta...

There are about two million Urhobos. The word Urhobo refer to a group of people and not the geographical territory. The Urhobos have social and cultural affinity to the Edo speaking people of Nigeria (Northcote Thomas, 1910).

[...]

Urhobo calendar[edit]
Urhobo Okpo (week) is made up of four days based on regulated market cycles, religious worship, marriages and other community life. The four days of the Urhobo week are Edewo, Ediruo, Eduhre, and Edebi. In Urhobo mythology, Edewo and Eduhre are sacred days to divinities, spirits, and ancestors. Most markets are held on these days. Ancestors are venerated on Edewo. Most traditional religious rituals are held on Eduhre."...

**
Excerpt #2:
https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?story_fbid=413853415302872&id=292790394075842
Urhobo People's Progress, May 25, 2012 ·
"Urhobo calendar

Urhobo Okpo (week) is made up of four days which regulates market cycles, religious worship, marriages and other community life. The four day's of the Urhobo week are:Edewo,Ediruo,Eduhre,Edebi. In Urhobo mythology, Edewo and Eduhre are sacred days to divinities, spirits and ancestors. Most market days are held on these days, ancestors are venerated on Edewo. Most traditional religious rituals are held on Eduhre."

****
YORUBA
Excerpt #1:
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yoruba_people
"Yoruba people (Yoruba: Ìran Yorùbá, literally: Yoruba lineage, also known as Àwon omo Yorùbá, literally: Children of Yoruba, or simply as Yoruba) are an ethnic group of Southwestern and North Central Nigeria as well as Southern and Central Benin, together known as Yorubaland. The Yoruba constitute over 40 million people in total. The majority of this population is from Nigeria and make up 21% of its population, according to the CIA World Factbook,[1] making them one of the largest ethnic groups in Africa. The majority of the Yoruba speak the Yoruba language, which is tonal, and is the Niger-Congo language with the largest number of native speakers.[9]

...
Significant Yoruba populations in other West African countries can be found in Ghana,[10][11][12] Ivory Coast,[13] Liberia and Sierra Leone.[14]

The Yoruba diaspora consists of two main groupings; one of them includes relatively recent migrants, the majority of which moved to the United Kingdom and the United States after major economic and political changes in the 1960s to 1980s; the other is a much older population dating back to the Atlantic slave trade. This older group has communities in such countries as Cuba, Dominican Republic, Saint Lucia, Jamaica,[15] Brazil, Grenada,[16] Trinidad and Tobago,[17][18][19][20][21][22][23] among others"...

**
Excerpt #2:
From http://www.omniglot.com/writing/yoruba.htm
"Yoruba (èdè Yorùbá)

Yoruba is one of the four official languages of Nigeria and is a member of the Volta-Niger branch of the Niger-Congo family of languages. It is spoken by about 22 million people in southwest Nigeria, Benin, Togo, the UK, Brazil and the USA.

Yoruba first appeared in writing during the 19th century. The first Yoruba publications were a number of teaching booklets produced by John Raban in 1830-2. The person who made the biggest contribution to Yoruba literacy was Bishop Ajayi (Samual) Crowther (1806-1891), who studied many of the languages of Nigeria, including Yoruba, and wrote and translated in some of them. Crowther was also the first Christian bishop of West African origin. A Yoruba orthography appeared in about 1850, though it has undergone a number of changes since then.

[...]

Yoruba is a tonal language with three tones: high, mid and low. The high tone is indicated by an acute accent (á, é, ẹ́, í, ó, ọ́ and ú). The mid tone is not marked and the low tone is marked with a grave acute (à, è, ẹ̀, ì, ò, ọ̀ and ù)."...

**
Excerpt #3:
From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yoruba_calendar
"The traditional Yoruba week has four days. The four days that are dedicated to the Orisa go as follow:
Day 1 is dedicated to Obatala (Sopanna, Iyaami, and the Egungun)
Day 2 is dedicated to Orunmila (Esu, Ifá and Osun) *
Day 3 is dedicated to Ogun (Osoosi)
Day 4 is dedicated to Sango (Oya)

To reconcile with the Gregorian calendar, Yoruba people also measure time in seven days a week and four weeks a month. The four-day calendar was dedicated to the Orisas and the seven-day calendar is for doing business.

The seven days are: Ojo-Aiku (Sunday), Ojo-Aje (Monday), Ojo-Ishegun (Tuesday), Ojo-Riru (Wednesday), Ojo-Bo/Alamisi (Thursday), Ojo-Eti (Friday) and Ojo-Abameta (Saturday).

[...]

The traditional Yoruba calendar (Kojoda) has a 4-day week and 91 weeks in a year. The Yoruba year spans from 3 June of a Gregorian calendar year to 2 June of the following year. According to the calendar developed by Remi-Niyi Alaran[who?], the Gregorian year 2015 AD is the 10,057th year of Yoruba records of time.[2] With the British colonial and European cultural invasions, came the need to reconcile with the Gregorian calendar: Yoruba people also measure time in seven days a week and 52 weeks a year."
-snip-
The asterisk is given in this Wikipedia page, but doesn't appear to lead to any information. Click the pancocojams tag "Yoruba orishas" for posts about this subject.

****
This concludes Part II of this two part series on names of the days of the week in ten traditional Nigerian languages.

Thanks for visiting pancocojams.

Visitor comments are welcome.

No comments:

Post a Comment